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  1. Initially you should have router with OpenWRT firmware with OpenVPN client enabled. The main page of the firmware is http://openwrt.org Router, flashed with OpenWRT firmware image, initially accept connection only by telnet, so you should connect to it by telnet to the IP 192.168.1.1 and change root password with command "passwd". After this command it accepts connection via ssh. By default openvpn isn't included in the firmware image, so you should install it by use of opkg: # opkg update # opkg install openvpn-openssl You can also install luci-component of openvpn configuration, but it is optional: # opkg install install luci-app-openvpn You can also build firmware image with openvpn. Good manual of general OpenVPN client configuration you can find on the page https://github.com/StreisandEffect/streisand/wiki/Setting-an-OpenWrt-Based-Router-as-OpenVPN-Client We will follow it with modifications, specific for AirVPN. After openvpn installation you can make it autostarting when router starts: # /etc/init.d/openvpn enable Download configuration files needed for OpenVPN connection via tool on the link https://airvpn.org/generator Choose "Linux", and further options. Notice, that there is amount of different options like country, protocol, and port number. In the result you get one or more OpenVPN configuration files with extension "ovpn", possibly in archive. File name in the archive defines country or region, number, protocol and port. For example, consider the file "AirVPN_America_UDP-443.ovpn" "America" means America, "UDP" means UDP protocol, and "443" means port number. We will use this file for example, other files are treated similarly. Comment with "#" the option "explicit-exit-notify 5" in the file, because OpenVPN client in OpenWRT doesn't recognize it. In result the line should start with "#": "# explicit-exit-notify 5". Copy the file "AirVPN_America_UDP-443.ovpn" with pscp or WinSCP programs in Windows, scp command in Linux to /etc/openvpn/ folder of router filesystem. In case of copy problems you should force using exactly scp protocol (it also can use sftp). The file itself contains contents of file "ca.crt" between tags "<ca>" and "</ca>", "user.crt" between tags "<cert>" and "</cert>", "user.key" between tags "<key>" and "</key", and contents of file "ta.key" between tags "<tls-auth>" and "</tls-auth>". You can create separate files "ca.crt", "user.crt", "user.key", and "ta.key" with corresponding content excluding tags, in the same folder, and replace tags with content in original file with following strings: ca ca.crt cert user.crt key user.key tls-auth ta.key 1 Notice, that contents of all files for different OpenVPN configuration files are identical. In other words, the significand difference of OpenVPN configuration files is string, containing server address and port, beginning with the word "remote". Configuration of OpenVPN using the file "AirVPN_America_UDP-443.ovpn" could be implemented by two ways. 1) Change the extension of the file "ovpn" to "conf". In this case OpenVPN will find it automatically by extension. 2) Specify file name in /etc/config/openvpn You can use uci: # uci set openvpn.airvpn=openvpn # uci set openvpn.airvpn.enabled='1' # uci set openvpn.airvpn.config='/etc/openvpn/AirVPN_America_UDP-443.ovpn' # uci commit openvpn The file /etc/config/openvpn should contain following appended strings: config openvpn 'airvpn' option enabled '1' option config '/etc/openvpn/AirVPN_America_UDP-443.ovpn' You can also change extension of the file "ovpn" to "conf", and speficify it in the file /etc/config/openvpn, in this case OpenVPN will start with this configuration file just once. You can also manually specify parameters specific for OpenVPN-connection in the file /etc/config/openvpn. In this case you don't need the file "AirVPN_America_UDP-443.ovpn", because all necessary parameters from it are specified explicitly. However, it is tiresomely. Create new network interface: # uci set network.airvpntun=interface # uci set network.airvpntun.proto='none' # uci set network.airvpntun.ifname='tun0' # uci commit network The file /etc/config/network should contain following appended strings: config interface 'airvpntun' option proto 'none' option ifname 'tun0' Create new firewall zone and add forwarding rule from LAN to VPN: # uci add firewall zone # uci set firewall.@zone[-1].name='vpnfirewall' # uci set firewall.@zone[-1].input='REJECT' # uci set firewall.@zone[-1].output='ACCEPT' # uci set firewall.@zone[-1].forward='REJECT' # uci set firewall.@zone[-1].masq='1' # uci set firewall.@zone[-1].mtu_fix='1' # uci add_list firewall.@zone[-1].network='airvpntun' # uci add firewall forwarding # uci set firewall.@forwarding[-1].src='/external_image/?url=lan' # uci set firewall.@forwarding[-1].dest='vpnfirewall' # uci commit firewall To prevent traffic leakage outside the VPN-tunnel you should remove forwarding rule from lan to wan. In default configuration there is single forwarding rule, so the command is: # uci del firewall.@forwarding[0] You can also set "masquerading" option to '0' for wan zone, it goes after lan zone, so the command is: # uci set firewall.@zone[1].masq=0 After configuration you should commit changes: # uci commit firewall The file /etc/config/firewall should contain following appended strings: config zone option name 'vpnfirewall' option input 'REJECT' option output 'ACCEPT' option forward 'REJECT' option masq '1' option mtu_fix '1' list network 'airvpntun' config forwarding option src 'lan' option dest 'vpnfirewall' Now we should configure DNS servers. The simplest approach is to use public DNS for WAN interface of router. You can add OpenDNS: # uci set network.wan.peerdns='0' # uci del network.wan.dns # uci add_list network.wan.dns='208.67.222.222' # uci add_list network.wan.dns='208.67.220.220' # uci commit The file /etc/config/network should contain section 'wan' with following strings (three bottom strings has been appended): config interface 'wan' option ifname 'eth0.2' option force_link '1' option proto 'dhcp' option peerdns '0' list dns '208.67.222.222' list dns '208.67.220.220' You can also add GoogleDNS: # uci set network.wan.peerdns='0' # uci del network.wan.dns # uci add_list network.wan.dns='8.8.8.8' # uci add_list network.wan.dns='8.8.4.4' # uci commit The appended strings should be similar to previous one. To prevent traffic leakage in case VPN-tunnel drops you should edit the file /etc/firewall.user with following content: # This file is interpreted as shell script. # Put your custom iptables rules here, they will # be executed with each firewall (re-)start. # Internal uci firewall chains are flushed and recreated on reload, so # put custom rules into the root chains e.g. INPUT or FORWARD or into the # special user chains, e.g. input_wan_rule or postrouting_lan_rule. if (! ip a s tun0 up) && (! iptables -C forwarding_rule -j REJECT); then iptables -I forwarding_rule -j REJECT fi if (! iptables -C forwarding_lan_rule ! -o tun+ -j REJECT); then iptables -I forwarding_lan_rule ! -o tun+ -j REJECT fi You should also create the file 99-prevent-leak in the folder /etc/hotplug.d/iface/ with following content: #!/bin/sh if [ "$ACTION" = ifup ] && (ip a s tun0 up) && (iptables -C forwarding_rule -j REJECT); then iptables -D forwarding_rule -j REJECT fi if [ "$ACTION" = ifdown ] && (! ip a s tun0 up) && (! iptables -C forwarding_rule -j REJECT); then iptables -I forwarding_rule -j REJECT fi In some cases openvpn hangs with log message like (couldn't resolve host ...). In this case tunnel stays up, but connection is lost. It should be reconnected manually, with the following script /etc/openvpn/reconnect.sh, which is added to /etc/rc.local as: /etc/openvpn/reconnect.sh & The content of script reconnect.sh is like: #!/bin/sh n=10 while sleep 50; do t=$(ping -c $n 8.8.8.8 | grep -o -E '\d+ packets r' | grep -o -E '\d+') if [ "$t" -eq 0 ]; then /etc/init.d/openvpn restart fi done Update of luci-app-openvpn - git-19.256.41054-c048f23-1 tried to find file with name 'openvpn-airvpn.conf' (see section in /etc/openvpn/config). So you should rename your file 'AirVPN_America_UDP-443.ovpn' to 'openvpn-airvpn.conf', and comment or remove corresponding string: config openvpn 'airvpn' option enabled '1' # option config '/etc/openvpn/AirVPN_America_UDP-443.ovpn'
  2. Initially you should have router with Padavan's firmware with OpenVPN client enabled. The main page of the firmware is https://bitbucket.org/padavan/rt-n56u There is also script Prometheus, which was developed to simplify compilation process and to expand the list of supported devices http://prometheus.freize.net Login to your router via web-interface. By default it has LAN-address 192.168.1.1 Go to VPN Client item of main menu with corresponding link http://192.168.1.1/vpncli.asp#cfg (http://my.router/vpncli.asp#cfg). Toggle the switch "Enable VPN Client", after that fill forms as shown on Scr1.png You can use servers, specified in OpenVPN configuration files with extension "ovpn". Download configuration files needed for OpenVPN connection via tool on the link https://airvpn.com/generator Choose "Linux", and further options. Notice, that there is amount of different options like country, protocol, and port number. In the result you get one or more OpenVPN configuration files with extension "ovpn", possibly in archive. File name in the archive defines country or region, number, protocol and port. For example, consider the file "AirVPN_America_UDP-443.ovpn" "America" means America, "UDP" means UDP protocol, and "443" means port number. We will use this file for example, other files are treated similarly. The string, containing server address, begins with the word "remote". In the example it is "remote america.vpn.airdns.org 443". The last numerical value is port number. On the screen the example of UDP-protocol is shown. To use TCP-protocol change fields "Port" to corresponding value of port number and "Transport" to TCP. Protocol is also specified in the string beginning from "proto". You can leave OpenVPN Extended Configuration, you can also comment the line "ns-cert-type server" with leading "#". Go down and fill forms as shown on Scr2.png, and press "Apply" button. In the example there is option not to obtain DNS from VPN-server. It is assumed, that WAN of router was configured to use OpenDNS (208.67.222.222, 208.67.220.220) or GoogleDNS (8.8.8.8, 8.8.4.4). Also there is option to specify DNS for LAN clients (Advanced Settings -> LAN -> tab DHCP server, http://192.168.232.1/Advanced_DHCP_Content.asp, http://my.router/Advanced_DHCP_Content.asp). However you can set this option to obtain DNS from VPN-server ("Add to existing list" or "Replace all existing"). Pay special attention to the item Restrict Access from VPN Server Site. The item controls access to router from Internet via tunnel. The safest option as shown on Scr2.png is Yes, block all connections (site is foreign). If you choose No (Site-to-Site), using NAT translation, TOTAL ACCESS TO ROUTER INCLUDING MANAGEMENT - HTTP, HTTPS, AND SSH WILL BE GRANTED FROM INTERNET VIA TUNNEL. Go to the tab "OpenVPN Certificates & Keys" with corresponding link http://192.168.1.1/vpncli.asp#ssl (http://my.router/vpncli.asp#ssl), and copy content between tags "<ca>" and "</ca>" to the field "ca.crt", content between tags "<cert>" and "</cert>" to the field "client.crt", content between tags "<key>" and "</key>" to the field "client.key", content between tags "<tls-auth>" and "</tls-auth>" to the field "ta.key", and press "Apply" button, as shown on Scr3.png Tags are always excluded from contents. Now your router should successfully connect to VPN-server. You can check it by the white word "Connected" in the green rectange to the right of VPN-server address on VPN Client item of main menu with corresponding link http://192.168.1.1/vpncli.asp#cfg (http://my.router/vpncli.asp#cfg), as shown on Scr1.png You can also visit site, displaying your IP-address, e.g. https://ipleak.net After positive result you should make your changes permanent. You can do it by three ways: run in console command "mtd_storage.sh save"; on the page Advanced Settings -> Administration -> Settings with corresponding link http://192.168.1.1/Advanced_SettingBackup_Content.asp (http://my.router/Advanced_SettingBackup_Content.asp) press button "Commit" to the right of item "Commit Internal Storage to Flash Memory Now"; reboot router by pressing Reboot button to the right of "Logout" button. To sum up, files, corresponding to filled fields, are stored in the directory /etc/storage/openvpn/client, resulting OpenVPN configuration file is stored in the directory /etc/openvpn/client. To prevent traffic leakage in case VPN-tunnel drops you should edit the contents of item "Run the Script After Connected/Disconnected to VPN Server" on VPN Client item of main menu with corresponding link http://192.168.1.1/vpncli.asp#cfg (http://my.router/vpncli.asp#cfg), which is shown on Scr2.png, to add lines to functions func_ipup and func_ipdown, the result content should be as in the file /etc/storage/vpnc_server_script.sh By the word, it is the same file where form content is saved. Also you should block traffic until tunnel is up. To do it edit the form "Run After Firewall Rules Restarted" on the page Advanced Settings -> Customization -> Scripts with corresponding link http://192.168.1.1/Advanced_Scripts_Content.asp (http://my.router/Advanced_Scripts_Content.asp), the result content should be as in the file /etc/storage/post_iptables_script.sh Addional lines serve to remove SNAT target. Finally you should make your changes permanent by the same way, as was discussed before. vpnc_server_script.sh: #!/bin/sh ### Custom user script ### Called after internal VPN client connected/disconnected to remote VPN server ### $1 - action (up/down) ### $IFNAME - tunnel interface name (e.g. ppp5 or tun0) ### $IPLOCAL - tunnel local IP address ### $IPREMOTE - tunnel remote IP address ### $DNS1 - peer DNS1 ### $DNS2 - peer DNS2 # private LAN subnet behind a remote server (example) peer_lan="192.168.9.0" peer_msk="255.255.255.0" ### example: add static route to private LAN subnet behind a remote server func_ipup() { # route add -net $peer_lan netmask $peer_msk gw $IPREMOTE dev $IFNAME # unblock traffic if blocking rule exists if iptables -C FORWARD -j REJECT; then iptables -D FORWARD -j REJECT fi return 0 } func_ipdown() { # route del -net $peer_lan netmask $peer_msk gw $IPREMOTE dev $IFNAME # block traffic leakage in case of tunnel drops if (! iptables -C FORWARD -j REJECT); then iptables -I FORWARD -j REJECT fi return 0 } logger -t vpnc-script "$IFNAME $1" case "$1" in up) func_ipup ;; down) func_ipdown ;; esac post_iptables_script.sh: #!/bin/sh ### Custom user script ### Called after internal iptables reconfig (firewall update) # prevent traffic leakage while tunnel is not up if [ -z "$(ip a s tun0 | grep 'state UP')" ] && (! iptables -C FORWARD -j REJECT); then iptables -I FORWARD -j REJECT fi ipch=$(iptables -t nat -S | grep SNAT | grep -v br0) if [ ! -z "$ipch" ]; then eval 'iptables -t nat -D'${ipch:2} fi
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